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    Argentina

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    Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic is a country located in the Southern half of South America (Spanish/Español: América Del Sur).

    The Country borders with Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia & Paraguay, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, covers mainly with the Southern Cone, and the Drake Passage (Pasaje de Drake) to the South.

    Argentina is very popular along the Spanish CountryHumans Community, while the character continues to grow in the English (& Possibily Russian) Community. The number of posts of Argentina were from 2,000+ (June 2019) to 14,900+ Posts (June 2020).

    The character‘s first appearance can be traced as far as January 31, 2018.

    Description[edit | edit source]

    Appearance[edit | edit source]

    Mostly projected as a male, Argentina mainly wears deportive clothes, like adidas jackets of black and blue colors or their official football/soccer jersey. A lot of times, they'll wear something different. In many times they will dress a yellow or other color long-sleeve shirt. Sometimes, they are seen dressed in tango or gaucho clothes. As the character continues to grow in 2020, they're presented in a lot of appearances.

    As a female, Argentina wears a skirt with black suspenders and a white shirt. In addition to wearing a tango hat and academic uniform shoes.

    Personality[edit | edit source]

    Argentina's personality is similar to Brazil's personality in some ways, being quite magnetic and popular; As a very ambitious and determined country, Argentina is full of potential and optimism about its future. Similar to the other countries of the Southern Cone of South America ( Chile and Uruguay), the personality of Argentina is generally described as a "city guy/girl" and upper class. Although Argentina stands out much more in it. The reason why every time they travels to Europe they feels at home.

    With a studied character, Argentina has a certain love for books and they are an authentic expert and enthusiastic in the studies of psychoanalysis.

    Argentina's personality is also presented as very impressive and has a natural leadership spirit. The rest of the Latin American (With the exception of Brazil) countries do not dare to contradict they when they get angry. This domineering nature and arrogance sometimes causes someone to tell them that they resemble the personality of the Inca and the Spanish Empire when they were in control of South America. Although this has always seemed a compliment to Argentina.

    Argentina does not usually start arguments, but can become very aggressive when they feels insulted or when another country makes fun of them. But most of the time it's very welcoming and friendly.

    Their determination and natural love of competition make them very focused and fervent in their goals, pushing them to their best and pushing them to their limits, but this can make them narrow-minded, inflexible and apathetic.

    Interests[edit | edit source]

    • Football
    • Folklore and tango

    Flag meaning[edit | edit source]

    Color, meaning HEX RGB
    Blue represents freedom, as well as the majesty of the blue sky #74ACDF 116, 172, 223
    White represents the clouds, whereas the sun represents the Sun of May #FFFFFF 255,255,255

    The current flag of Argentina was Adopted on 1861 but was originally adopted on 27 February 1812, and later Standardized in 2012, Designed by Manuel Belgrano (Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González) (03.06.1770 - 20.06.1820) The Flag features the Sun of May (Sol de Mayo) in the middle with White Background, while the Blue (#75aada) in the Top and Bottom of the flag.

    This sun represents the process of independence that started on 25th May 1810.

    Others symbols[edit | edit source]

    The Sun of May (En Español: El Sol de Mayo), first established in 1818, is the symbol in the middle of the flag that represents the Inca God of the Sun, Inti. (This Symbol is also used in the flag of Uruguay, at Top-Left of the flag. (Adopted to the flag in 1830.)

    Nicknames[edit | edit source]

    "Argentine", mainly used to a person from Argentina, the name is known to Countryhumans since the nickname was first used on 11 June 2019.

    Origin of languages[edit | edit source]

    There is also Portuñol, a pidgin of Portuguese and Spanish spoken since approximately 1960 in the areas of Argentina that border Brazil.

    Etymology[edit | edit source]

    The name is derived from the Latin argentum "silver". The first use of the name Argentina can be traced to the voyages of the Spanish conquerors to the Río de la Plata. The explorers who shipwrecked in Juan Díaz de Solís' expedition found native communities in the region who gave them silver presents.

    Organizations and Affilations[1][edit | edit source]

    • African Development Bank Group (AfDB) (nonregional member)
    • Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
    • Andean Community of Nations (CAN) (associate)
    • Australia Group
    • Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
    • Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
    • Central American Integration System (SICA) (observer)
    • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
    • Group of 15 (G15)
    • Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G20)
    • Group of 24 (G24)
    • Group of 77 (G77)
    • International Astronautical Federation (IAF)
    • Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
    • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
    • International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
    • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
    • International Criminal Court (ICCt)
    • International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
    • International Development Association (IDA)
    • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
    • International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
    • International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
    • International Labour Organization (ILO)
    • International Maritime Organization (IMO)
    • International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO)
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation (INBAR)
    • International Olympic Committee (IOC)
    • International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    • International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
    • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    • International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO)
    • International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
    • Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
    • Latin American Economic System (LAES)
    • Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
    • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
    • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
    • Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
    • Organization of American States (OAS)
    • Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
    • Rio Group (RG)
    • Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)
    • International Institute for the Unification of *Private Law (UNIDROIT)
    • Unión Latina (observer)
    • United Nations (UN)
    • Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)
    • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
    • United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
    • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
    • United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
    • United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
    • United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
    • United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
    • Universal Postal Union (UPU)
    • World Confederation of Labour (WCL)
    • World Customs Organization (WCO)
    • World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
    • World Health Organization (WHO)
    • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
    • World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
    • World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
    • World Trade Organization (WTO)
    • Zangger Committee (ZC)

    History[edit | edit source]

    Prehispanic period[edit | edit source]

    The pre-Hispanic history of Argentina refers to the local cultural developments of the current territory of the Argentine Republic prior to the conquest and colonization by Spain.

    The first population record of the territory currently controlled by Argentina dates back to the 12th or 13th millennium BP, according to the findings of Los Toldos and Piedra Museo. Among the original peoples, hunters and gatherers inhabited Patagonia, the Pampa and the Chaco. The farmers settled in the northwest, Cuyo, the Sierras de Córdoba and later in Mesopotamia. Tastil, in the northwest, was the largest pre-Columbian city located in current Argentine territory, with a population of 2000 inhabitants.

    The Argentine indigenous peoples were divided into two large groups: hunters and gatherers, who inhabited Patagonia, the Pampa and the Chaco; and the farmers, settled in the north, Cuyo, the Sierras de Córdoba and, later, in Mesopotamia.

    The first traces of human life in this territory correspond to peoples of a Palaeolithic cultural level that three thousand years ago incorporated the first Mesolithic and Neolithic cultural contributions. Until the time of the conquest and European colonization, the Argentine territory has been occupied by diverse native peoples, with different social organizations that can be divided into three main groups:

    Hunters and gatherers of basic oceanic canoe foods, such as the yagán or yámana and the haush in Tierra del Fuego and the Tierra del Fuego channels. Hunters and gatherers, who inhabited Patagonia, the Pampa and the Chaco. Advanced hunters and food gatherers such as the Pampas, in the center-east: hets in the prairies and steppes of the Pampas and North Patagonia; and chonks in Patagonia —invaded since the s. XVIII by the Mapuche potters from the Cordilleran area of ​​Patagonia - and the Qom and Wichi in the Chaco region. Also belonging to this group are the Charruas and Minuanes Pámpidos, who had incorporated pottery. Farmers with ceramics like the Guarani and the Andean and derived cultures. Starting in the second millennium, the Avá (an Amazonian people known since the 17th century by the Spanish as "Guaraníes") invaded the NEA and the Argentine Littoral; They were cultivators of cassava and avaty or maize in the form of slash (cutting and burning of forests) and therefore semi-sedentary.Cultures focused on agriculture and livestock in the north were purely sedentary, and had developed commercial networks encompassed in the group currently called « Quechua"; After establishing a quasi-state system around local manors, they were subjugated by the Inca empire around the year 1480. Influenced by these Andean cultures, other peoples such as the Diaguitas, Calchaquies and Huarpes developed less developed agriculture and livestock, adapted to the conditions of the flat and mountainous regions of the center of present-day Argentina and Cuyo. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Inca Empire conquered part of the current provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, the extreme west of the province of Tucumán, the western part of the provinces of La Rioja and San Juan, the northwest of the province of Mendoza and, probably, the north of Santiago del Estero, incorporating its territories to Collasuyo, which was the southern part of Tahuantinsuyo or regions of such empire.

    Traditionally, the conquest is attributed to the Inca monarch Túpac Yupanqui. Several lordships in the region, such as the Quechuas, the likanantai (atacamas), the huarpes, the diaguitas and others, tried to resist, but the Incas managed to dominate them, transferring to their territories the mitimaes or colonists deported from the chichas tribes. who lived in what is the southwest of the current Bolivian territory. Others, such as the sanavirones, the lule-tonocoté and the henia-kâmîare (popularly called "comechingones"), successfully resisted the Inca invasion and remained independent lordships.

    They created agricultural and textile centers, settlements (collcas and tambos), roads (the "Inca trail"), fortresses (pucarás) and high mountain sanctuaries. Some of the main ones are the pucará de Tilcara, the tambería del Inca, the pucará de Aconquija, the sanctuary of Llullaillaco, the shincal of London and the ruins of Quilmes.

    Spanish conquest and colonization[edit | edit source]

    The Spanish conquest and colonization of Argentina refers to the period between the 16th century and the beginning of the 19th century in which a part of the current territory of Argentina was conquered and colonized by the Spanish Empire. In this period the expression Argentina (country of silver) appears for the first time to designate an area without defined limits that extended from the Rio de la Plata towards the northwest. The period also includes the arrival for the first time of Spaniards to various areas of the current Argentine territory, at which time in many cases they adopted the name with which the indigenous peoples already called that region and in others they designated them with new names.

    The colonial period in Argentina is usually divided into three periods: the discovery and conquest, during which the explorations of the territory and the foundation of the major cities were carried out; the period of the governorates, during which the Spanish settlements fought against the indigenous populations and tried to consolidate, registering few territorial and economic changes; and the viceregal period that extends until the May Revolution of 1810, in which the Spanish viceroy was expelled and a self-government junta was appointed. The Argentine War of Independence is already usually cited as part of the history of Argentina.

    Europeans first arrived in present-day Argentine territory in 1516, with the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís along the Rio de la Plata. Later, the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes in 1520 anchored their ships in the Bay of San Julián, today the province of Santa Cruz. Fort Sancti Spiritu was the first European settlement, installed in 1527 on the banks of the Paraná River. The first exploration of the northwest and center of the country was the entry of Diego de Rojas in 1543. The cities of Asunción (1537), Santiago del Estero (1553), Córdoba (1573) and Buenos Aires (1536/1580) were the bases of the colonial establishment that was imposed in the northern half of the current Argentine territory, subject to the authority of the Spanish Crown (the Government of the Rio de la Plata). The Spanish Empire founded several cities and imposed a colonial rule on the population that inhabited a series of regions that roughly correspond to the fourteen provinces that confederated in 1860 to form the Argentine Republic. At the end of the colonial period, the Spanish Empire created the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, which included the fourteen aforementioned provinces and the territories of the current republics of Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.

    Due to the bull of Pope Paul III Sublimis Deus of 1537 that declares the indigenous men with all the effects and capacities of Christians, there was a great contrast between the Spanish, Anglo-Saxon and French colonization in America. In the Spanish Empire unity Social was conceived through the unity of the faith of the Catholic Church. In the first century of colonization, the Spanish Empire conquered approximately a third of the current Argentine territory, subduing the native peoples that inhabited it and producing a demographic catastrophe, which is why the European conquerors introduced kidnapped slaves into black Africa. In the seventeenth century the Guaraní Jesuit missions were established, missionary communities founded by the Society of Jesus among the Guaraní and related peoples, whose purpose was to evangelize and avoid the enslavement of the indigenous people of the current provinces of Misiones, Corrientes and part of Paraguay and Brazil. They successfully fulfilled their task, until in 1768, the Spanish King Carlos III ordered to expel the Jesuits.

    A large part of the current territory of Argentina and of the indigenous peoples that inhabited it was not under the colonial rule of Spain, mainly the Chaco regions (under the Wichi and Qom rule) and the Pampean-Patagonian (under Tehuelche-Mapuche-Ranquel rule). . Between 1560 and 1667 the Diaguita lordships maintained a long resistance known as the Calchaquí Wars in present-day northwest Argentina.

    During most of the colonial period, the Argentine territory was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, until in 1776 King Carlos III of Spain created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata with part of his territory. The city of Buenos Aires was designated as its capital due to its growing importance as a commercial center and with the idea of ​​better resisting an eventual Portuguese attack, as well as having an easier access to {{Pictogram|Spanish Empire]] Spain through Atlantic navigation.

    In the 18th century, the natural multiplication of bovine cattle and bighorn horses in the pampas plains, the Eastern Band of the Rio de la Plata and southern Brazil, caused the appearance of a special type of independent peasant on horseback called gaucho —in the in the case of men - and china - in the case of women. The gauchos developed a culture of their own characteristics, joined and would fight in the War of Independence and faced the ranchers to guarantee their right to access to livestock and land, until they were defeated in the second half of the 19th century. This wealth in wild cattle also led to the appearance of indigenous people with an equestrian tradition in the Chaco, the Pampa and Patagonia, who engaged in an intermittent struggle for livestock resources with the Spanish and Creole population.

    Until the middle of the 19th century, much of Patagonia and the Pampas remained under the control of different indigenous peoples: mainly, Chonks and then also the Mapuches in Patagonia and Ranqueles in the Pampas plain until the last quarter of the 19th century. Likewise, the territories of a large part of the Chaco region were not colonized by Europeans, but remained inhabited by indigenous peoples such as the Qoms, Moqoits (Mocovís or, Mocovíes), Pilagás and Wichis until the beginning of the 20th century. The sedentary indigenous population was subjected to permanent dependency relations with respect to the Spanish population. Although over the generations it was absorbed into a population ethnically identifiable as "Creole", this process of mestization was not total, as evidenced by the participation of populations from the Northwest of current Argentine territory in the great indigenous uprising of 1780 with its epicenter in Cuzco, directed by the Inca Túpac Amaru II.

    Independence[edit | edit source]

    In the history of Argentina, it is known as the Period of Independence as the period between the May Revolution of 1810 and the Anarchy that dissolved all national authorities in 1820.

    During this period, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata - initial name of the current Argentine Republic - began its existence as a sovereign country, successfully sustained it through a prolonged War of Independence and declared its independence. But also during this period they failed to give themselves a central government and a constitution that were accepted by all their provinces on a permanent basis.

    It was also during this period that several territories that had been part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata were definitively separated from Argentina: Paraguay, for having supported its own independence process; Upper Peru, for continuing under Spanish power, of which more later it would become independent as the Republic of Bolivia; and the Banda Oriental, for having fallen under the power of Portugal, which would inherit it to Brazil, from which it would become independent as the Eastern State of Uruguay.

    The beginning of the period is established on May 25, 1810, the date of the creation of the first government of the United Provinces, and the end on February 11, 1820, the day on which the last Supreme Director, José Rondeau, resigned and the National Congress.

    First Governing Board[edit | edit source]

    The First Governing Board, officially the Provisional Governing Board of the Río de la Plata Provinces on behalf of Mr. Don Fernando VII, was the Governing Board that emerged on Friday, May 25, 1810 in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, as a consequence of the triumph of the May Revolution that deposed Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and appointed Cornelio Saavedra as the President of the First Board of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. The seat of government was established in the Fort of Buenos Aires, which served since 1776 as the residence of the viceroys and where today the Government House is located. The First Board existed as such until December 18 of the same year, since with the incorporation of deputies from the interior it became the Big Board, which gave rise to the long War of Independence of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata against Spain (1810-1824).

    While the war of independence was unfolding, a complex dispute was also taking place over the form of organization of the new State, which in 1814 generated the beginning of a civil war that —with intermittence— would last more than half a century. The leader of the federal fraction, the eastern José Gervasio Artigas was proclaimed Protector of the Union of Free Peoples, a league of provinces that refused to be administered by the unitary government of Buenos Aires. It organized the so-called Eastern Congress in Concepción del Uruguay, of which it is still debated whether it succeeded in proclaiming —as it was proposed— independence from Spain.

    On July 9, 1816, in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, the congress of deputies from the northwestern and central-west provinces of the country and from Buenos Aires, together with some exiled deputies from Upper Peru, met, g proclaimed the independence of the United Provinces in South America, using the following formula:

    ❝ ... recover the rights that were stripped, and invest the high character of a free and independent nation of King Ferdinand VII❞

    his successors and metropolis ...

    At various points in, the new governments had to face counterrevolutionary resistance from the royalist armies, which were trying to restore the authority of the Spanish monarchy in the region. The wars for independence began. Some of the main commanders were Manuel Belgrano, in command of the Army of the North, José de San Martín, creator of the Army of the Andes, Martín Miguel de Güemes, organizer of the gaucho war and Juana Azurduy, commander of the guerrilla war in the Upper Peru. The Argentine State considers San Martín as the greatest military hero of its independence and honors him with the title of "Father of the Nation." Together with Simón Bolívar, they were the most responsible for the liberating deeds that ended with the Spanish presence on the continent.

    The formation of the federal state[edit | edit source]

    The first decades as an independent country were conflictive: faced with the hegemony of the Unitarians, the federals repeatedly rose up in defense of the autonomy of the provinces, leading - after the so-called Anarchy of the Year XX - to the division of the country into autonomous provinces generally governed by military leaders, while the country —except for a brief interval between 1825 and 1827— lacked a national government until 1852. Each province assumed full government in its territory.

    The war of independence continued until 1825, but it was fought preferably on the northern border and in Peru. Meanwhile, the Eastern Province was invaded by the Kingdom of Portugal, from whom it passed to the Empire of Brazil. The consequent War in Brazil culminated in the Preliminary Peace Convention of 1828, which declared the disputed territory independent, with the name of the Eastern State of Uruguay. Shortly before, in 1825, ]]Upper Peru]] formed the Republic of Bolivia and the following year the city of Tarija and its jurisdiction were added.

    The remaining territory —which had managed to increase its territorial control somewhat with some successful military campaigns against the indigenous people— began to use the name “Argentina” officially in the mid-1820s. The official name “United Provinces of the River de la Plata ”continues to be considered, constitutionally, an alternative name for the country, although it has fallen into practical disuse.

    At the beginning of the 1830s, the federals managed to triumph throughout the country, which adopted the name of the Argentine Confederation. For more than twenty years, the federal governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, actually assumed the highest national authority, although in theory he was only the depository of external representation for all the provinces.

    During the time of his hegemony he fought and defeated successive uprisings of the Unitarians, i a blockade of the Rio de la Plata by France and then another joint blockade by Great Britain and France. He also maintained warlike conflicts against the File:Peru/Bolivian Confederation-Pictogram.png Peru-Bolivian Confederation and against the so-called Government of the Defense of Montevideo, the Uruguayan capital, due to the interference of the two parties of that country - white and red - in the Argentine civil wars.

    Despite the peace that he was able to impose and the economic growth —at least in the Litoral provinces— Rosas's enemies demanded individual, political and expression freedoms, which were ironically annulled by the Buenos Aires governor; the core of his claims was the sanction of a political constitution that would formally organize the national state and guarantee the rights of citizens.

    National Organization[edit | edit source]

    In 1852, Rosas was defeated at the Battle of Caseros by the Big Army, an alliance between the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, the Colorado troops from Uruguay and others from Brazil. The alliance was headed by the federal anti-Rosista Justo José de Urquiza, governor of Entre Ríos, who assumed the provisional presidency.

    This period lasted until the sanction of a Constitution in 1853, which with some changes has governed the country until today. It adopted a federal regime, but the province of Buenos Aires separated from the Argentine Confederation, which had to establish its capital in the city of Paraná. In 1859, the Confederation defeated Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda, forcing it to sign the Pact of San José de Flores, by which Buenos Aires rejoined what has since been called the Argentine Republic. However, the final reunification was achieved under the direction of Buenos Aires after the Battle of Pavón (1861), during the presidency of Bartolomé Miter.

    In 1865, Argentina again became involved in a civil war in Uruguay, to which Paraguay responded by occupying the city of Corrientes. After signing a Triple Alliance with Brazil and Uruguay, Argentina took part in the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay, which lasted five years and required the participation of 10,000 Argentine soldiers. Paraguay was finally defeated in 1870, leaving a large part of its male population totally devastated and dead. Despite its enormous economic cost and human lives, as it was the cause of the continuation of civil wars in Argentina, this country managed to consolidate its limits in the northeast, since the border was set on the Pilcomayo, Paraguay and Paraná rivers.

    During the presidencies of Miter and especially of Sarmiento and Avellaneda, Argentina was inserted in the world economy as an agro-exporting country, supported by an extensive rail network and the advancement of the educational system. After two bloody revolutions in 1874 and 1880, in this last year the city of Buenos Aires was federalized and a lasting balance was established between the provinces and the capital.

    Conservative governments and early radical governments[edit | edit source]

    Between 1878 and 1884 the so-called Conquest of the Desert and the Chaco took place, in order to put an end to the constant confrontations between indigenous and Creole on the border and to appropriate the indigenous territories, tripling the Argentine territory. The first conquest, promoted by Julio A. Roca, consisted of a series of military incursions into the Pampean and Patagonian territories dominated by the native peoples, distributing them among the members of the Rural Society, who financed the expeditions. The conquest of the Chaco lasted until end of the century, given that its full incorporation into the national economic system only took place when the mere extraction of wood and tannin was replaced by the production of cotton. The Argentine government considered the indigenous as inferior beings, without the same rights as the Creoles and Europeans.

    Between 1880 and 1916, the National Autonomist Party (PAN) monopolized power on the basis of fraudulent elections, promoted by the sung vote system and for 25 years, the excluding figure was General Julio Argentino Roca. The so-called Conservative Republic or Oligarchic Republic organized a successful and modern agro-export model based on the so-called international division of labor imposed by the British Empire, oriented mainly to the production of meat and grains destined for the British market. In the traditional story, the country was seen at that time as "the breadbasket of the world."

    This economic model generated a concentration of wealth in a few hands and the social exclusion of the working classes and populations settled outside the Pampas region. The economy reached high levels of growth that attracted a large immigration stream, mainly made up of millions of Italians and Spaniards and to a lesser extent followed by East Europeans and West Asians. The Argentine population, which represented 0.13% of the world population in 1869, would go on to represent 0.55% in 1930, a proportion in which, approximately, it would stabilize since then.

    The prosperity of the economy fueled the growth of a considerable middle class, made up mostly of immigrants or their descendants. European immigrants also introduced new political ideas such as socialism and anarchism into the country, as well as participated alongside the local population, especially Afro-Argentines, in the creation of mutual aid organizations and trade unions.71 72 Modern political parties emerged. like the Radical Civic Union (UCR) and the Socialist Party (PS).

    After more than two decades of political and social conflicts, electoral fraud and serious acts of repression, in 1912 the Sáenz Peña Law was enacted, which established secret, compulsory and universal suffrage for male voters. In the first presidential election with secret suffrage, the conservatives were displaced from power by the radicals led by Hipólito Yrigoyen, who was president between 1916 and 1922, and between 1928 and 1930. During his first government, the student movement known as the reform began. university, which spread throughout and produced the workers' massacres of Tragic Week and rebellious Patagonia. Between both governments of Yrigoyen, the also radical Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear was elected president.

    Alternation between coups and democratic regimes[edit | edit source]

    On September 6, 1930, the first of a series of coups in Argentina took place that led a civic-military group to establish a dictatorship justified by the Supreme Court as a "de facto government" after overthrowing Hipólito Yrigoyen. This coup started a sequel of fraudulent governments known as the Infamous Decade.

    The Argentine agro-export model entered into crisis due to the closure of international markets caused by the Crisis of 1929. The country promoted a process of import substitution that developed a large industrial sector. The Infamous Decade was overthrown by the Revolution of 43, a second coup d'état that installed a military government in which an alliance between unions and some soldiers would take place that gave rise to Peronism. Despite pressure from the United States since this country entered the war in late 1941 when it was attacked by Japan, Argentina remained neutral for most of the remainder of World War II, joining the Allies on December 27. March 1945, during the government of General Edelmiro Farrell, shortly before the end of the War.

    In 1946 Juan Domingo Perón was elected president with the support of the unions organized in the Labor Party. Perón, accompanied by his wife Evita de el, led a new movement that emphasized social justice, political sovereignty, and economic independence. Under his government, women's suffrage was established in 1947, the equality of men and women in family law, the equality of children born in or out of wedlock, the free university education, malaria was eradicated, etc. Through the Eva Perón Foundation, unprecedented social assistance was developed in the country, providing economic support to the most vulnerable sectors. Railways and foreign trade were also nationalized, and a strong industrialization process was generated, promoting heavy industry.

    In 1951 Perón was reelected for a new presidential term with 63.40% of the votes in what constituted the first election with universal suffrage of men and women in Argentina. In 1952 Evita died. Almost 60 years later, the Woman of the Bicentennial would be declared, as the symbol of the protagonism of women in Argentine history. Peronism had a wide support of the population, but also with a strong rejection of the opposition sectors, polarizing the Argentine society into Peronists and anti-Peronists. His policy harmed British interests, hitherto dominant in the economy, who supported the opponents. The beginning of a conflict with the Catholic Church weakened the loyalty to the government of vast sectors and unified the opposition.

    On June 16, 1955, a civil-military conspiracy, using some thirty Navy and Air Force planes, bombed and machine-gunned the population of Buenos Aires in the Plaza de Mayo and other places.77 This attack produced 308 victims officially identified - including 111 trade union activists including 23 women - a death toll that could not be identified due to mutilations and more than 700 injured.

    In September, Perón was overthrown by a new coup called the Liberation Revolution, which outlawed Peronism, many of whose supporters were imprisoned or shot, which earned the coup the nickname "Fusiladora Revolution." Perón was forced into exile until the end of the ban in 1973.

    During the ban, Peronism will continue to influence politics and trade unionism - an area in which it won most of the elections - denying legitimacy to the authorities installed by non-democratic means and developing an opposition activity known to the Peronist Resistance.

    In 1958, Arturo Frondizi (UCRI) was elected president in elections with Peronism outlawed but after making an electoral pact with Perón, being overthrown by a new military coup in 1962. The coup this time had the peculiarity that power was assumed by the civilian José María Guido, appointed president by the Supreme Court of Justice that same day after the overthrow and arrest of Frondizi, alleging a power vacuum for his appointment. Although Guido formally held the presidency, the true material power resided in the military sphere. During his tenure, the confrontations between two factions of the Argentine Army, known as Azules and Colorados, became more acute, leading to armed confrontations. The victory of the "blue" sector allowed General Juan Carlos Onganía to reunify the Army.

    With Peronism still outlawed and former President Frondizi arrested, in 1963 Arturo Umberto Illia (UCRP) was elected as president, who would also be deposed by a military coup in 1966, which would lead the government to Onganía.

    His dictatorship, the first of the three that made up the so-called Argentine Revolution (1966-1973), was also the first permanent dictatorship installed within the framework of the military regimes that multiplied in with active support from the United States through the School of the Americas and the doctrine of national security in the global framework of the Cold War. The abolition of political activity and state terrorism caused an insurrectionary state of the population that manifested itself in the appearance of various guerrilla organizations - such as Montoneros, the FAR and the ERP - and a large number of insurrectionary towns, such as the Cordobazo, the Rosariazo and the Tucumanazo, among others. Cornered by the popular insurrection, the dictatorship organized an electoral exit with the participation of Peronism - although preventing the candidacy of Perón.

    In 1973 Peronism was legalized and it triumphed in the presidential elections, beginning what has come to be called the third Peronism. After the resignation of President Héctor José Cámpora, that same year, Juan Domingo Perón was elected president for the third time, thus precipitating his death nine months later. He was succeeded by the vice president and his wife, María Estela Martínez de Perón. This period was characterized by an accelerated deterioration of the internal situation, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis and the generalized political violence, including the organization from the government of a parapolice force called the Alianza Anticomunista Argentina (Triple A) that together with the Police and military forces have assassinated hundreds of opponents since 1973 - several of them "disappeared detainees" - as well as the installation of clandestine detention centers in the framework of the repression ordered by the so-called annihilation decrees.

    On March 24, 1976, a new military coup took place that installed a new permanent dictatorship called the National Reorganization Process, which would last almost eight years and would be internationally coordinated with the other South American dictatorships through the Condor Plan, under the protection of the United States. During it, a regime of State terrorism was implemented that carried out a systematic plan to kidnap, torture and eliminate opponents, classified by the courts as genocide, causing thousands of disappearances and hundreds of children who suffered the suppression of their identity.

    In response, human rights organizations were formed, such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo, which will play a crucial role in the "trial and punishment of the guilty" and in the recovery of the kidnapped babies whose identity had been been suppressed. The trade union movement also put up strong resistance, even declaring several general strikes, despite the disappearances that affected it massively, the dissolution of the CGT and the intervention of the unions.

    The dictatorship had the active support of the main business groups, occupying key functions of the government, as well as the International Monetary Fund, multinational companies, the main press media, along with prominent journalists and communicators. The economic plan followed the guidelines of the Chicago School - frequently identified with neoliberalism. An important sector of the population supported the dictatorship, while another sector resisted it through guerrilla action, the creation of human rights organizations such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, or union action and strikes.

    The external debt, which will condition democratic governments as of 1983, went from 7,700 million in 1976 to 45,000 million dollars in 1983, in many cases the result of criminal operations for the benefit of economic groups and multinational companies. In 1978, there was a serious crisis with Chile over the limits in the Beagle Channel area, which brought both countries to the brink of war. In 1982 the Falklands war with the United Kingdom developed; Argentina's defeat was one of the factors that led to the collapse of the military regime and the call for general elections for the following year.

    Recovery of democracy[edit | edit source]

    The history of Argentina between 1983 and 2003 was marked by the recovery of democracy in the year in which the period began, the prosecution of those guilty of human rights violations during the previous dictatorship - a feature that distinguishes Argentine democracy from other recovered democracies in South America—, the foreign debt crisis, the start of globalization, neoliberal reforms and the severe economic recession that began in 1998 that ended with the general crisis of 2001/2002, during which dozens of opponents were assassinated, including the massacres in Plaza de Mayo on December 20, 2001 and in Avellaneda. The period encompasses the first time in Argentine history for two continuous decades under democratic rule and the first time that democratic presidents hand over power to democratically elected successors of another political party.

    The democratic government was reestablished on December 10, 1983. The new president was Raúl Alfonsín, from the Radical Civic Union, who decided to investigate the crimes against humanity of the dictatorship by creating CONADEP, an entity that produced a decisive report entitled Never again. The first three military junta were prosecuted and some of their members convicted, although also under his mandate and due to military pressure, impunity laws began to be enacted. In 1984 the border dispute with Chile over the Beagle Channel ended. In 1985 he agreed with the new democratic president of Brazil, José Sarney, to initiate the regional integration process that would take place in 1991 under the name of Mercosur.

    After the 1989 presidential elections and the country's governance affected by a hyperinflationary process, Alfonsín was forced to leave the presidency and hand over power six months in advance. Carlos Menem of the Justicialist Party took office. With a strong role of Minister Domingo Cavallo, he stopped inflation through a convertibility regime and carried out a broad process of privatizations, deregulation, opening of the economy and external indebtedness, in line with the 1989 Washington Consensus and IMF support. Socially, mass unemployment appeared and crime rose sharply, both becoming central problems on the political agenda. In 1991 Argentina entered the war against Iraq without authorization from the National Congress, under the orders of the United States. In 1992 and 1994 it suffered two major terrorist attacks against the Israeli embassy and against the AMIA, with 23 and 85 deaths respectively, without the culprits being discovered, in investigations with many irregularities. The border dispute with Chile over 481 km² located in the Lake area was resolved. of the desert. In 1994 a pact between Alfonsín and Menem allowed the reform of the Constitution and the following year Ménem was re-elected. An arms trafficking operation to Ecuador and Croatia caused the explosion of the Rio Tercero arms factory, damaging the city, causing seven deaths and seriously affecting relations with Peru. Social conflicts and strikes increased, exploding towns and roadblocks that gave rise to the piquetero movement. In 1998 a period of recession began that lasted four years and led to the worst crisis in Argentine history.

    In December 1999, Fernando de la Rúa assumed the presidency of the Unión Cívica Radical, which at that time was part of La Alianza. It took measures to reduce the public deficit -among them the reduction of pensions- and make labor rights more flexible, following the indications of the IMF.The economic and social crisis worsened and the government appointed the former minister of President Menem, Domingo Cavallo, who ordered the freezing of bank deposits (a measure known as "El Corralito"), which culminated in a generalized social insurrection, with dozens of murders caused by the forces of repression, which led to the resignation of the President on December 20, 2001. two weeks of uncertainty followed by several presidents, including the brief government of Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, during which the country went into default by declaring a moratorium on foreign debt.

    On January 2, 2002, the Legislative Assembly elected Eduardo Duhalde, from the Justicialista Party, as provisional president. Duhalde put an end to convertibility, establishing an asymmetric pesification regime, known as “el corralón.” The peso was devalued by 300% and banks did not return their clients' dollar deposits, prompting actions against them from broad sectors of the middle class. During this period, poverty rose to 56% of the population and unemployment to 26%, establishing the subsidies called Unemployed Heads of Household Plan, which reached a peak of two million plans in May 2003. The external debt reached at 135% of GDP. That year inflation was 41% and the increase in food prices reached 74.9%.

    Kirchnerism and macrism[edit | edit source]

    The history of Argentina between 2003 and 202099 has been characterized by the election of Peronism / Kirchnerism four times (2003, 2007, 2011 and 2019) and one time of Macrismo (2015), which was not re-elected by the population. At the end of the period, the COVID-19 pandemic occurred.

    The period began with the recovery from the great crisis of December 2001, caused by the outbreak of the convertibility of the peso and the dollar, giving way to the default of the foreign debt, with an enormous social cost, which put more than half of the population below the poverty line, with almost a third of unemployment.

    In the 2003 presidential elections, Néstor Kirchner's Kirchnerism defeated Menemism. During this period, Congress initiated impeachment proceedings against five members of the Supreme Court, prompting the resignation of three and the removal of another two. Impunity laws were annulled and trials for crimes against humanity were reopened during the dictatorship. , in which several hundred repressors were convicted. The dismantling of the FTAA was promoted. The debt with the IMF was canceled and a restructuring of the external debt was carried out with a strong reduction. GDP grew from $ 97 billion in 2002 to $ 329 billion in 2007.102 Unemployment fell from 17.9% in 2002 to 8.5% in 2007. Labor policy re-established annual parity (collective bargaining between employers and unions), provided for the annual setting of the minimum wage by tripartite agreement, reducing unregistered work from 50% in 2003 to 39% in 2007. Inflation was moderate, although with an upward trend: it went from 5.3% to 2004 to an estimated 15-20% for 2007, although official statistics reported a considerably lower rate.

    In the 2007 presidential elections, Kirchnerism (Frente para la Victoria) again triumphed, leading as candidate Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, the first Argentine woman to lead a winning presidential formula. During this mandate (2007-2011), the retirement and pension funds were re-nationalized, the Universal Child Allowance was created and the Equal Marriage Law was approved. In the international arena, she promoted the creation of UNASUR and CELAC. The social security system was re-nationalized, created the Universal Child Allowance, renationalized Aerolineas Argentinas, approved the equal marriage law, repealed the Broadcasting Law of the dictatorship and sanctioned a new media law. Shortly after beginning her period, she faced an extensive agricultural strike supported by massive demonstrations, due to the official policy of taxes on exports.

    In the 2011 presidential elections, Kirchnerism (Frente para la Victoria) triumphed for the third time, once again taking Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as a candidate, surpassing the votes of the two previous elections, with 54%. During his second term, 51% of the shares of the oil company YPF were reestablished, retirement was extended for housewives and precarious workers, the Audiovisual Communication Services laws were approved, the gender identity law was sanctioned, and the million netbooks to public school children (Conectar Igualdad), a new Civil and Commercial Code was approved and the development of the industrial sector was promoted, highlighting the launching into orbit on October 16, 2014, of the ARSAT-1 satellite, a satellite of geostationary communication by the state company ARSAT, having been built by the Argentine company INVAP. Subsequently, on September 30, 2015, the ARSAT-2 was launched, which, like the previous one, was put into orbit from French Guyana. With the development and putting into orbit of these satellites, Argentina became part of the select group of countries in the global space industry. Likewise, the launch of ARSAT-3 was planned within the National Space Plan, but said development was suspended, after the change of political administration produced after the elections of 2015. There was a strong judicial and media confrontation with Grupo Clarín. During the two terms of Cristina Kirchner, poverty, unemployment and unregistered work were reduced and The middle class doubled. In 2012, a long period of economic difficulties and deterioration of social indicators began, in the context of the Great World Recession and especially the economic crisis in Brazil, with inflation close to 30%, although official data continued indicating lower rates The government took measures such as establishing regulations for the purchase of dollars, increasing public spending and various ti after subsidies to industry and public services. During its two periods, GDP grew from $ 329 billion to $ 548 billion in 2014.

    In the 2015 presidential elections, Macrismo defeated Kirchnerism and non-Kirchnerist Peronism. Mauricio Macri (who was Head of Government of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015) was elected president of the Republican Proposal (PRO), with the electoral alliance Cambiemos. A stage of complete change in the orientation that the Kirchnerist governments had had until then began. The new government applied a series of measures such as the free acquisition of foreign currency, reductions to withholdings on soybean and other grain exports, as well as mining exports, and devaluation of the peso, which led to a decrease in GDP by cooling of the economy. At the beginning of 2016, the Law on Audiovisual Communication Services was modified by decree of Mauricio Macri, making its antitrust regulations more flexible. Energy rates and fuel prices increased, which were dollarized. Simultaneously, the government sharply increased the foreign debt. In 2018 Argentina suffered a strong capital outflow, which produced a devaluation of the peso by 135% and led the government to return to the IMF, with a considerable increase in external debt. Contracting debt by issuing bonds (the largest in an emerging country in history), the Argentine government agreed to payments to the vulture Funds in dispute with the country for amounts greater than those demanded by them; A first payment of 9300 million dollars, questioned in court, gave rise to a "third generation", a new batch of plaintiffs with bonds that did not enter the previous debt swaps. In less than two years (between December 2015 and June 2017) the debt issued by the Argentine government was almost 100 billion dollars, reaching the figure of 216,351 million dollars in December 2017.120 In 2019 there was another devaluation of 50%, capital flight, an inflation higher than 50%, real wages fell and poverty increased to over 35%.

    In the 2019 presidential elections, President Macri sought re-election but was defeated by the Peronist candidate Alberto Fernández, accompanied by Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as vice president. The start of the government coincided with the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Politics[edit | edit source]

    Government[edit | edit source]

    Diplomacy[edit | edit source]

    Geography[edit | edit source]

    Argentina is located in the Southern half of South America. Due to its huge Area (1,073,978mi²) Argentina is the second biggest country in South America (after Brazil), and the 8th Largest Country in the world.

    It's population, 45,100,979 (12.06.2019), makes the country the 31st populated Country in the world (After Colombia - 30th - 48,655,020, & Before Ukraine - 32nd - 43,703,339).

    With the Country's huge Land and bordering/Covering 1.57% of the world's water, Argentina is ranked the Eighth-Largest Country in the world (2,780,400 KM) (9th - Kazakhstan, 7th - India).

    Argentina's total Area is 1,073,978 mi², 1,057,094 mi2 of land area, and 16,884mi² of water area. It shares 6.535% of Americas' land (4th) and 1.867% of the World's land (8th)

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Family[edit | edit source]

    (Not everyone thinks the same, and some people think differently about their family.)

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    (Not everyone thinks the same, and some people think differently about their friends.)

    Neutral[edit | edit source]

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Former Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Past versions[edit | edit source]

    • Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
    • United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
    • Argentine Confederation
    • State of Buenos Aires

    Opinions[edit | edit source]

    Chile[edit | edit source]

    As children, Chile and Argentina were great friends, but they were distanced by the taken of Patagonia and their relationship was completely broken when the UK took the Falklands. At present both forgive each other but, according to Chile, both changed, they no longer recognize each other as they did, they distanced themselves and their friendship is not the same as in the past, before if one had a problem they did not hesitate to tell the other, today you have to think twice before asking yourself something.

    Falklands Islands[edit | edit source]

    Argentina feels a great love for Malvinas, an unconditional love, it would never do anything to hurt them, so seeing the economic situation in which it is today comparing it with that of the United Kingdom, it is happy not to have won the war, in a way. Apparently, they hasn't seen them since they lost them, they hates being called Falklands, in spite of all that they will never say or deny the origins of it, for them and for all those who support the Malvinas to be Argentine.

    United Kingdom[edit | edit source]

    TBA

    Peru[edit | edit source]

    Argentina and Peru today have a great friendship, almost like that of Argentina and Chile in the past. You could say that Peru filled the place that Chile left empty. Peru forgave Argentina when their government sold weapons to Ecuador when they was fighting Peru . But Argentina did not apologize for selling the weapons, it apologized for not being able to handle the situation that was happening inside their country and that they were affected.

    Mexico[edit | edit source]

    Argentina and Mexico have a very turbulent relationship. Both went through very similar things and in terms of personality they are very similar, what happened with Malvinas and Draft:Texas. Even so, Argentina and Mexico always reluctantly relate to each other. Mexico constantly boasts of being superior to Argentina and the other countries of the Southern Cone. Argentina tends to give Mexico the coup de grace by rubbing all of its internal problems and assuring that it prefers to do well with the West before lowering itself in its position.

    Brazil[edit | edit source]

    Brazil is Argentina's cousin and has shared a great rivalry for football, education and religion. However, they are both very fond of each other. Sometimes, they are represented as a Latin American leaders.

    Uruguay[edit | edit source]

    Uruguay is Argentina's siblings, they fight only in football, but they are friends with each other.

    Gallery[edit | edit source]

    Fan-Art[edit | edit source]

    Flags/Symbols[edit | edit source]

    Previous[edit | edit source]

    States[edit | edit source]

    Trivia[edit | edit source]

    • Unlike the rest of the Latin American countries, Argentina and Uruguay are the only countries whose culture and history are strongly related to the countries of Europe, particularly with: Armenia, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain after a great wave of people from said countries arriving at Argentina. Due to this, Argentina and Uruguay would be unique and different countries with their own cultures.
    • Argentina could be consider as the birthplace of the term, “Country humans.” Where the term was first used as a username in Facebook on July 19, 2014. (Username spaced) The term without being Spaced was used in a Journal on DeviantArt on November 21, 2014. Besides that, the country is also famous for most of inventions being introduced in Argentina, including the first Feature Animation Film. (El Apóstol • 1917)
    • The Spanish Language used in Argentina is very different compared to other Countries where Spanish is the official language. Words like ‘Che’ or 'Eu', ect (Hey) are mainly used. There is a slight difference on the pronunciation and accent too, such as using the word 'vos' instead of 'tu'; or 'vos sos o tenes' instead of 'tu eres o tienes'.
    • Argentina is commonly seen as a Homosexual character, due to how progressive LGBT rights are in the country since it’s translation to democracy in 1983. In July 2010, the country legalized Gay-Marriage (Same-Sex), & is sometimes known as, “the leading Transgender country.” Even though the Country’s main Religion is Catholic with 92%. Please note that not all Argentinians are part of the LGBT+.
    • Page Created on June 11, 2019
    • Pope Francis is originally from Argentina

    Extras(s)[edit | edit source]

    • Urbanization: 92% (41.5 Million)
    • Religion: Catholic Church (92%, 41.5 Million)
    • Protestantism (2%, 902,028)
    • Other (6%, 2.7 Million)
    • Basic Human Needs: 68th in the World
    • Foundations of Wellbeing: 47th in the World
    • Social Opportunities: 39th in the World
    • Health & Wellness: 70th in the World
    • Without drinking water: 0.4% (168,093)
    • Personal Safety: 104th in the World
    • Access to Education: 51st in the World
    • Illiteracy: 1.9%
    • Personal Freedom: 65th in the World
    • Freedom of Speech: 32nd in the world
    • Freedom of Religion: Very High
    • Tolerance: 36th in the World
    • Women Equality: Medium
    • Tolerance for Minorities: 49th in the World
    • Tolerance for Homosexuals: 25th in the World (60.9%)
    • Real GDP: $912 Billion
    • Unemployment: 8.1% (1.5 Million)
    • Internet Users: 25 Million Users (55.4%)
    • Telephones: 68.6 Million
    • Mobile Phones: 58.6 Million

    Links[edit | edit source]

    es:Argentina

    References[edit | edit source]

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