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    Denmark

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    Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (Kongeriget Danmark) is the character of CountryHumans, a state in Northern Europe.

    Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, located southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and also borders Germany to the south by land. Denmark is washed by the Baltic and North Seas.

    Denmark is a member of the European Union (but still not a member of the Eurozone), as well as one of the founders of NATO and the OECD.

    Description[edit | edit source]

    Appearance[edit | edit source]

    Denmark is usually seen wearing a fluffy winter coat and a hat. Denmark is also represented with a typical raincoat of fishermen and is the smallest of the Nordic countries

    They are most often depicted in a warm sweater or dark-colored T-shirt.

    Personality[edit | edit source]

    Denmark is quite calm and good-natured, and rarely runs into a fight. But they can seem rude because of their straightforwardness. They prepare delicious pastries. They can talk about their favorite rolls and cakes. They are very clean; always cleaning the apartment, washing the dishes, going out for groceries - all these are familiar things for them, about which they speak with pride.

    Not many people like their jokes. Instead of congratulating them on their birthday - this is a completely normal turn of events for them.

    Etymology[edit | edit source]

    According to the famous legend, the word Denmark (Denmark) refers to the legendary king Dan, there are also a number of references to several Dani peoples in Scandinavia or other places in Europe, in ancient Greece and Roman sources (such as Ptolemy and Jordan), as well as some medieval literature (such as Adam of Bremen and Beowulf).

    In addition, in most books, the first part of the word and the name of the people (Den) comes from the word for Flat Earth, associated with the German word "Tenne" (Threshing floor), the English word "Den" (Low), Sanskrit "Dhánus" (धनुस् ; means desert), while -mark is believed to mean forest or outskirts, with possible references to border forests in southern Schleswig.

    Flag meaning[edit | edit source]

    Color, meaning HEX RGB
    Red symbolizes battle #C8102E 200, 16, 46
    White represents peace #ffffff 255, 255, 255
    • White cross on a red banner symbolizes Christianity.
    • At the beginning of modern times, a red cloth with a white cross was the military banner of the German emperor.

    Nicknames[edit | edit source]

    • Dan

    Origin of Language[edit | edit source]

    Organizations and Affiliations[edit | edit source]

    History[edit | edit source]

    Earliest İnhabitants[edit | edit source]

    By about 12,000 BC, as the climate warmed and the great glaciers of the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago) were receding, the first nomadic hunters moved into what is now Denmark, bringing tools and weapons of the Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age) with them. Shell mounds(refuse heaps also known as kitchen middens) reveal the gradual development of a nomadic hunter-gatherer society, whose tools and weapons continued to progress in sophistication and complexity. Beginning in the 4th millennium BC, during the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age), a peasant culture emerged in Denmark as the people living there further developed their stone tools, began keeping livestock, and adopted agriculture. Those first farmers began to clear land in the forests for fields and villages, and after about 3500 BC they built large, common, megalithic graves. By about 2800 BC a single-grave culture emerged, but whether this shift indicates a change in local custom or another group moving into the area is not clear. In the last phase of the Stone Age in Denmark, the so-called Dagger period (c. 2400–1700 BC), flint working reached its apogee with the production of technical masterpieces, including daggers and spearheads modeled after metal weapons that were being imported at the time.

    The growing wealth of the region, particularly of the elite portion of society, in the Bronze Age (c. 1700–500 BC) is illustrated by the fine metalworking skills seen in the spiral decorations on the bronzes of the period—notably the famous Late Bronze Age lurs (long curved, metal horns, often found in pairs), created about 1000–800 BC. During the same period, increasingly varied and improved tools, such as the bronze sickle, enabled better exploitation of cultivated areas. It was also during the Bronze Age that woolen cloth began to be produced in Denmark. (Sheep raised prior to this period were used for their milk and their meat rather than for their wool.)

    After 500 BC, bronze was gradually replaced by iron, and a more complex village society developed in a landscape of bogs, meadows, and woods with large clearings. Iron Age farm buildings, generally smaller than those of the Bronze Age, appear to have been moved every generation or so, and the empty plots were then cultivated. That buildings might be reerected on former plots suggests that the population remained in a given area. Objects of great value, as well as people, continued to be laid as offerings in the bogs. The so-called Tollund Man, the well-preserved body of an Iron Age man found in 1950 in a bog near Silkeborg, Den, is probably the most famous of these discoveries. Along with evidence of human offerings, there are indications that slavery was practiced during this period.

    More-or-less-fixed trading connections were established with the Romans during the Iron Age, and by about AD 200 the first runic inscription appeared—likely inspired by the Etruscan alphabet of northern Italy and possibly also influenced by the Latin alphabet. The Late Iron Age (c. 400–800) appears to have been a time of decline and unrest, and, in the 6th century, the bubonic plague raged. Toward the very end of the Iron Age, the first trading towns appeared at Hedeby (near what is now Schleswig, Ger.) and Ribe.

    Age of the Vikings[edit | edit source]

    On the territory of today's Denmark , Sweden and Norway in the years 700-1100, the Vikings were promoted throughout Europe, they, in fact, managed to walk all over the world.

    Thanks to a bloody and stubborn struggle, Christianity was still able to acquire such a status as an official religion. Of course, there have been attempts up to this point, but these attempts have not been crowned with success.

    The Viking Era[edit | edit source]

    Viking society, which had developed by the 9th century, included the peoples that lived in what are now Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and, from the 10th century, Iceland. In the beginning, political power was relatively diffused, but it eventually became centralized in the respective Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish kingdoms—a process that helped to bring about the end of the Viking era. Although a lot more is known about Viking society than about the earlier peoples in Denmark, the society was not a literate one, runic inscriptions notwithstanding. Some information about the era has thus been gleaned from the Vikings’ apparently rich oral tradition, portions of which were later recorded in poems such as Beowulf and in sagas such as Heimskringla

    The Vikings were superb shipbuilders and sailors. Although they are thought of primarily as raiders, they also engaged in a great deal of trade. In both capacities, they traveled widely along routes that stretched from Greenland and North America in the west to Novgorod (now in Russia), Kiev (now in Ukraine), and Constantinople (now Istanbul, Tur.) in the east, as well as from north of the Arctic Circle south to the Mediterranean Sea. The Viking trade routes, especially those along with the Russian river system, linked northern Europe to both the Arab trading network and the Byzantine Empire. The major goods moving east were slaves, furs, and amber while those traveling west included precious metals, jewels, textiles, and glassware. Danes, for the most part, occupied the centre of this system; they generally traveled west to England and south along the coast of France and the Iberian Peninsula.

    In addition to raiding and trading, Vikings established settlements, which at first may have served mainly as winter quarters while abroad. The Danes moved primarily to the eastern part of England that came to be called the Danelaw; this region stretched from the River Thames north through what became known as Yorkshire. It appears that a good number of Scandinavian women accompanied their men to England and also settled there. The other major area of the Danish Viking settlement was in Normandy, France. In 911 the Viking leader Rollo became the first duke of Normandy, as a vassal of Charles III of France. While the nationality of Rollo is in dispute—some sources say Norwegian and others say Danish—there is no question that most of his followers were Danes, many from the Danelaw area. Unlike the Danes in England, Rollo’s men did not bring many Viking women to France; most of the warriors married local women, resulting in mixed Danish-Celtic culture in Normandy.

    In the midst of the Viking era, in the first half of the 10th century, the kingdom of Denmark coalesced in Jutland (Jylland) under King Gorm the Old. Gorm’s son and successor, Harald I (Bluetooth), claimed to have unified Denmark, conquered Norway, and Christianized the Danes. His accomplishments are inscribed in runic on a huge gravestone at Jelling, one of the so-called Jelling stones. Harald’s conquest of Norway was short-lived, however, and his son Sweyn I (Forkbeard) was forced to rewin the country. Sweyn also exhausted England in annual raids and was finally accepted as king of that country, but he died shortly thereafter. Sweyn's son Canute I (the Great) reconquered Norway, which had been lost around the time of Swyen's death in 1014, and forged an Anglo-Danish kingdom that lasted until his own death in 1035. Various contenders fought for the throne of England and held it for short periods until the question of the succession was settled in 1066 by one of Rollo’s descendants, William I (the Conqueror), who led the Norman forces to victory over the last Anglo-Saxon king of England, Harold II, at the Battle of Hastings.

    Throughout the Viking period, Danish social structures evolved. Society was likely divided into three main groups: the elite, free men and women, and thralls (slaves). Over time, differences among members of the elite increased, and by the end of the period the concept of royalty had emerged, the status of the elite was becoming inheritable, and the gap between the elite and the free peasantry had widened. Slavery did not last past the Middle Ages.

    The High Middle Ages[edit | edit source]

    During the course of what historians have called the High Middle Ages, beginning about the 11th century, the political, social, and economic structures that scholars have associated with medieval European society came to Denmark, as well as to the rest of Viking Scandinavia. By the end of the 13th century, the systems now known as feudalism and manorialism framed many people’s lives, and the Christian church had become firmly established. However, defining the powers of the country’s rulers was fraught with difficulties. The ensuing battles for the throne, as well as struggles for power between the nobles and the king, would persist for centuries. Defining the kingdom’s borders presented problems as well, and Danish kings were forced to defend their territory against various outside forces.

    The Monarchy[edit | edit source]

    Sweyn II Estridsen (reigned 1047–74?) was on the throne during the transition from Viking to feudal society. When he took power, the royal succession was largely in the hands of the things, or local assemblies of freemen, which also legislated on various issues. Five of Sweyn’s sons succeeded each other on the throne: Harald Hén (ruled 1074–80), Canute IV (the Holy; 1080–86), Oluf Hunger (1086–95), Erik Ejegod (1095–1103), and Niels (1104–34). Their reigns were marked by conflict over the extent of the king’s power, and both Canute and Niels were assassinated. By 1146 civil war had divided the kingdom between three contenders.

    After protracted struggles, one of these contenders, Valdemar I (the Great), was acknowledged as the sole king in 1157. Valdemar initially recognized Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) as his overlord but later rejected the relationship, thereby emphasizing the independence of the Danish kingdom. Valdemar’s reign (1157–82) was followed by those of several other strong rulers, including that of his son Valdemar II (the Victorious; 1202–41). During Valdemar II’s reign, two essential works appeared: a code of law and the Jordebog (“Land Book”), a cadastre, or land register. In addition, a parliament, the hof, was established by the high prelates and aristocrats as a check against royal misuse of power; it met at short intervals and also functioned as the highest court. After Valdemar II’s death, peace and stability disintegrated. Power disputes culminated in two instances of regicide: King Erik IV (Plowpenny) was murdered in 1250 and King Erik V (Glipping, or Klipping) in 1286.

    During the reign of Erik V, in 1282, the nobility succeeded in formally limiting the king’s power. A charter between the great Danish lords and the king recognized the power of the lords in exchange for their support of the monarch. It forbade the king from imprisoning nobles purely on suspicion and also forced the king to call an annual meeting of the hof. This document (the haandfaestning) may be viewed as Denmark’s first constitution—albeit, like the Magna Carta in England, a feudal not a democratic one. Indeed, the charter resulted in a loss of power for the peasantry and the local things.

    The Kingdom[edit | edit source]

    With one notable exception, establishing the frontiers of the Danish realm had proved to be much easier than determining the extent of the king’s power. The inclusion of various islands within the Danish kingdom was fairly straightforward. In the southern Scandinavian Peninsula, in what is now the southern tip of Sweden, Denmark’s territory also encompassed the regions of Skåne, Halland, and Blekinge; these remained part of the Danish kingdom until their loss to Sweden in the 17th century.

    In the peninsula of Jutland, however, the placement of the kingdom’s southern border remained problematic until the current boundary was drawn in 1920. At issue was whether the regions of Schleswig (Slesvig) and Holstein (Holsten) should be part of Denmark or of the constellation of German states. To be sure, there was the Danewirk, a rampart in southern Jutland that begun in about 808 to protect Denmark from German incursions, but the Danish-German border seldom coincided with this wall. The problem was complicated by two other factors. Because of their importance, not least militarily, the rulers of Schleswig and Holstein, powerful nobles and often members of the Danish royal family, competed for control within Denmark. In addition, the relationship of the Danish king and the rulers of Schleswig and Holstein to the rulers of the German states and especially to the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, left the issue of sovereignty of the southern parts of Jutland unclear.

    Beyond these core areas of the kingdom—Jutland, the Danish islands, and the southern Scandinavian Peninsula—other areas also came under the Danish crown in the High Middle Ages. During this period the Danes’ Viking-era orientation toward the North Sea and Norway shifted east and south. Strong rulers in both England and Norway, as well as other interests, forced the attention of the Danes toward the Baltic Sea in particular.

    In the early 11th century the Wends, pagan Slavic tribes who lived along the Baltic east of the Elbe River, increasingly attacked merchant shipping in the sea and among the southern Danish islands. Not until the 12th-century campaigns of Valdemar I, combined with the often competing, sometimes cooperating efforts of the Saxons from west of the Elbe, were the Wends Christianized and the piracy and raiding stopped. Although Valdemar claimed Danish hegemony over Wendish lands, Saxon settlers, not Danish ones, moved into the area.

    Valdemar I’s sons continued his eastern policy and conquered north German lands in the western Baltic region, such as Holstein, part of Mecklenburg, and Pomerania. Competing with various German rulers and the Teutonic Order for converts and territory, the Danes also sent missionaries along the trade route from Schleswig to Novgorod.

    Valdemar II turned his attention farther east. In 1219 he took his army on what was designated as a crusade to what is now Estonia, where the Danes besieged and captured Tallinn and converted many to Christianity. But again, Germans rather than Danes moved into the area—making the Danish hold tenuous. In 1225, after Valdemar had been taken prisoner by one of his north German vassals, he promised to give up all the conquered areas except Estonia and the island of Rügen. A final attempt to win back the lost areas led to his decisive defeat in 1227, and the Danish empire in the western Baltic came to an end.

    The Twentieth Century[edit | edit source]

    • Denmark has been neutral in foreign policy since 1864. Denmark did not take part in the First World War. However, in 1920 the northern part of Schleswig ceded from German Empire to Denmark as a result of a referendum on the status of this province.
    • 1915 - Women gain the right to vote in parliament.
    • On December 1, 1918, Iceland received formal independence from Denmark. The was proclaimed an independent kingdom in personal union with Denmark .

    As a result of the global economic crisis, the position of the Danish economy is changing. Denmark becomes dependent on major powers (mainly Third Reich and Great Britain). Social Democratic governments make concessions to German Nazism. In May 1939, Denmark, the only Scandinavian country, concludes a non-aggression pact with the Third Reich.

    World War II[edit | edit source]

    • 1940, April 9 - the attack of German troops on Denmark and its occupation. The Danish government is subject to German dictatorship.
    • 1940, November 25 - Denmark officially joins the Anti-Comintern Pact.
    • 1941, June 25 - Denmark breaks off diplomatic relations with the USSR.
    • 1942 May - The Frith Denmark newspaper, an illegal organ of the Resistance Movement , is published.
    • 1943, August 29 - the government resigns.
    • 1944, June 17 - Iceland gains complete independence from Denmark and becomes a republic.
    • 1945 May - the surrender of German troops in Denmark .

    Post-war Denmark[edit | edit source]

    • 1945, October 24 - Denmark becomes one of the founding states of the UN .
    • 1949, April 4 - Denmark becomes one of the twelve founding states of NATO.
    • 1959, November 20 - Denmark joins the European Free Trade Association.
    • 1992, February 7 - signing by Denmark and some other European states of the Maastricht Treaty establishing the European Union.

    Modern Denmark[edit | edit source]

    • In 1989, Denmark became the first nation in the world to recognize same-sex unions by issuing a law on “registered partnerships”. Homosexual couples have the same rights as heterosexual ones.
    • In the early 21st century, unemployment began to flourish. Like the rest of Europe, Denmark was hit by a recession in 2009.
    • In 2022, the dispute between Denmark and Canada over Hans Island was resolved; they decided to divide the island along a ravine that crosses the island from north to south.

    Politics[edit | edit source]

    Government[edit | edit source]

    The system of governance in Denmark is a parliamentary democracy. The Parliament in Denmark is called the Folketing, and it has a multi-party structure. Since no single party has enough of the 179 votes to rule on its own, several parties negotiate on goals to form a multi-party coalition.

    Diplomacy[edit | edit source]

    Geography[edit | edit source]

    File:Denmark Map.png

    Denmark is attached directly to continental Europe at Jutland’s 42-mile (68-km) boundary with Germany. Other than this connection, all the frontiers with surrounding countries are maritime, including that with the United Kingdom to the west across the North Sea. Norway and Sweden lie to the north, separated from Denmark by sea lanes linking the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. From west to east, these passages are called the Skagerrak, the Kattegat, and The Sound (Øresund). Eastward in the Baltic Sea lies the Danish island of Bornholm. The total area of Denmark is amount 42,933 km2.

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Family[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    Neutral[edit | edit source]

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Past Versions[edit | edit source]

    • Kingdom of Denmark
    • Kalmar Union
    • Kingdom of Denmark and Norway

    Trivia[edit | edit source]

    • Astralis (Astralis Group) is a well-known Danish esports organization with divisions (rosters) for such video games as Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, League of Legends and FIFA. The organization achieved the greatest success in the Counter-Strike: Global Offensive game, having won 4 major tournaments.
    • The LEGO Group is a Danish private company engaged in the production of the eponymous series of educational toys, which are sets of parts for assembling and modeling various objects - constructors.
    • Madsen — Danish machine gun from the First World War. His system was developed in 1890 and has been produced since 1900 by Dansk Rekylriffel Syndikat. The Madsen machine gun is the world's first light machine gun launched into mass production, which lasted until the early 1950s.
    • Novo Nordisk is a Danish pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagswehr, a suburb of Copenhagen. The company was founded in 1923.
    • In 1989, Denmark became the first nation in the world to recognize same-sex unions by issuing a law on “registered partnerships”. Homosexual couples have the same rights as heterosexual ones.
    • In Denmark, trying to escape from prison is not considered a crime. If the fugitive is caught, he will only have to serve out their term.
    • Danish has 3 additional letters: Æ, Ø, and Å.
    • In Denmark it is the world's longest pedestrian street, located in the heart of Copenhagen - the shopping street Stroget, which became the world's first pedestrian zone. Its total length is 1.8 km. It includes four streets connecting the Town Hall Square and the Opera Square.
    • The Danish flag is the oldest operating national flag in the world. According to legend, it appeared among the Danes at the beginning of the 13th century.
    • Denmark is one of the happiest countries in the world.
    • In Danish there is a word "hygge", which is not translated into almost any language in the world.
    • 50% of Danish people commute to and from work by bike.
    • There are no mountains in Denmark.

    Gallery[edit | edit source]

    Fan-art[edit | edit source]

    Flags/Symbols[edit | edit source]

    Regions[edit | edit source]

    Extra(s)[edit | edit source]

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    Links[edit | edit source]

    References[edit | edit source]

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