×
Create a new article
Write your page title here:
We currently have 238 articles on CountryHumans Wiki. Type your article name above or create one of the articles listed here!



    CountryHumans Wiki

    Turkmenistan

    Notice!

    Some content here may be inaccurate or offensive, we are open to constructive criticism in the comments, but please keep it calm, and constructive!

    Turkmenistan is a country situated in Central Asia. It shares its borders with Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast and Iran to the south and southwest.

    Description[edit | edit source]

    Appearance[edit | edit source]

    TBA

    =Male[edit | edit source]

    TBA

    Personality[edit | edit source]

    They're a shy individual that doesn't like confrontation much, they don't get out and isn't very social. They dislike it when people smoke, it bothers them a lot. Although less common, Turkmenistan, due to the country's dictatorship government, can be seen as very egotistical, showing off their wealth with all the big marble and gold structures dotted around their lands. They are also very controlling, demanding all the attention on themself.

    Flag Meaning[edit | edit source]

    Color, meaning HEX RGB
    #
    #
    #

    The flag feature a white crescent (symbol of Islam) and five stars; those stars represent the five regions of the country. Placed upon a green field is a symbolic representation of the country's famous carpet industry.

    Other Symbols[edit | edit source]

    • Akhal-Teke horse
    • Red rose
    • Black Francolin
    • Watermelon
    • Foetid Juniper

    Origins of languages[edit | edit source]

    The Turkmen language falls into the Turkish language branch, which are in the Turkic Common, Turkic Oghuz, Eastern Oghuz, Turkmen languages.

    Preferences[edit | edit source]

    Likes[edit | edit source]

    Dislikes[edit | edit source]

    Nicknames[edit | edit source]

    • Turkmem

    Etymology[edit | edit source]

    The name of Turkmenistan (Turkmen: Türkmenistan) can be divided into two components: the ethnonym Türkmen and the Persian suffix -stan meaning "place of" or "country".

    History[edit | edit source]

    Early civilization and arrival of the Turkmens[edit | edit source]

    It is possible to follow the development of human habitats in southern Turkmenistan from Paleolithic times to the present. Some of the earliest traces of agriculture in Central Asia were discovered some 20 miles (32 km) north of Ashgabat in the Neolithic Jeitun civilization, which may be dated to the 5th millennium BCE. The Jeitun civilization was followed by a series of other Neolithic cultures, and a cultural unification of southern Turkmenistan occurred in the Early Bronze Age (2500–2000 BCE). During the course of the following half millennium, some urban centres were created; the ruins of Namazga-Tepe cover approximately 145 acres (60 hectares). From about the mid-3rd century BCE to the Sāsānian conquest in the 4th century CE, Turkmenistan formed part of the Parthian empire (see Parthia).

    Into this land came, probably in the 11th century, the Turkmens, strangers, as it were, with no links to any previous civilization of the region. Contemporary historians did not distinguish them from the Oghuz, a loose confederation of Turkic tribes present in the region since the 9th century. Turkmens came under the rule of the Seljuq dynasty (1038–1194) of Oghuz tribes, and they weathered the Mongol invasions (13th century) quite well; the southern tribes became part of the Ilkhanid empire, and the northern tribes belonged to the Golden Horde. One of the Turkmens’ principal occupations for centuries after the decline of Mongol rule was robbing passing caravans.

    Turkmen tribes and Russian invasion[edit | edit source]

    Until 1924 the Turkmens never experienced even nominal political unity. Their organization was exclusively tribal, and the tribes were either nomadic and independent or subject to neighbouring Persia or to the khanates of Khiva and Bukhara. During the 16th and 17th centuries the Chaudor tribe led a powerful tribal union in the north, while the Salor tribe was dominant in the south. During the 17th and 18th centuries the ascendancy passed to the Yokuts, Tekkes, Ersaris, and Saryks, who began to move out of the desert into the oases of Khorezm and to the Atrek, Tejen, and Morghāb rivers and to adopt a settled way of life. There was bitter rivalry among the tribes, particularly between the Tekke and Yomut, while the Goklans, inhabiting part of the Khiva oasis, were opposed to both. Thus, while the Tekkes were the principal opponents of the Russian invasion in the 1860s and ’70s, the other tribes either failed to support them or helped the Russians.

    The first notable Russian expedition under Prince Aleksandr Bekovich-Cherkasski in 1717 met with failure. However, in 1869 a Russian military force landed on the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea and founded the port of Krasnovodsk (now Türkmenbashy). In 1874 the Transcaspian military district was established, and in 1881 this district became the Transcaspian province, which in 1899 was made part of the governorate-general of Turkistan. There was fierce resistance to Russian encroachment, but this was finally broken by Gen. Mikhail Dmitrievich Skobelev at the Battle of Gök-Tepe (now Gökdepe) in 1881. The Turkmens took an active part in the revolt of 1916 against Russian rule, particularly in the town of Tejen, where many Russian settlers and officials were murdered.

    Soviet era[edit | edit source]

    After the Russian Revolution, during the Civil War (1918–20), Turkmenistan was the scene of sporadic fighting between the Social Revolutionary Transcaspian Provincial Government and the Bolshevik troops trying to penetrate from Tashkent. The Social Revolutionaries were for a time supported by a small British force of 1,200 men with its headquarters in northeastern Iran. The British force was withdrawn in April 1919, and Red troops captured Ashgabat in July 1919 and Krasnovodsk in February 1920. Bolshevik rule was thereafter established.

    Until 1924 the Transcaspian (after 1921 called the Turkmen) province formed part of the Turkistan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, while the remaining districts of Turkmenistan were embodied in the Bukharan and Khorezm people’s soviet republics formed in 1920. The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was formed in 1924 out of the Turkmen province, together with the Turkmen rayony (sectors) of the former Khorezm republic (Tashauz [now Daşoguz], Takhta [now Tagta], Ilyata, Kunya-Urgench, and Porsa) and of the Bukharan republic (Chardzhou [now Türkmenabat], Kerki, and part of Sherabad). It formally became one of the U.S.S.R.’s constituent republics in 1925. During the Soviet period Turkmenistan benefited from educational and health care modernization but experienced political repression.

    Independence[edit | edit source]

    Presidency of Saparmurat Niyazov (“Turkmenbashi”)[edit | edit source]

    The republic declared independence on October 27, 1991, and adopted the name Turkmenistan. In the early years of independence, a corrupt regime led by the dictatorial rule of Saparmurat Niyazov (also called Turkmenbashi, “leader of the Turkmen”) failed to improve the quality of life for the population, despite the interest of foreign investors in Turkmenistan’s natural gas resources. During the course of Niyazov rule, his primary interest proved to be propagating an elaborate personality cult. In addition to declaring himself president for life, Niyazov pursued a number of extravagant projects to this end. Atop a monument called the Neutrality Arch, a gold statue in his likeness—one of the many such statues and portraits scattered throughout the country—was designed to rotate to continuously face the Sun. He called for a “Golden Age Lake” to be constructed in the desert at a cost of more than $6 billion, and his semi autobiographical Ruhnama (“The Book of the Soul”) was established as required reading in all of Turkmenistan’s schools, even forming a part of driver’s exams. He renamed days of the week, months of the year, a crater on the Moon, a breed of horse, a canal, a city, and a wide range of ideas and places after himself and members of his family. A large proportion of state money—at the beginning of the 21st century, estimated at more than half of the country’s gross domestic product—was funneled off to a special presidential fund; much of this revenue was to subsidize special construction projects emphasizing the president’s prestige. This systematic diversion of revenue, as well as various “reforms,” resulted in a crippling decline in education and health care services.

    In late 2006, after more than two decades of rule, Niyazov died suddenly of heart failure. Fears that the absence of a designated successor would threaten the country’s stability were not immediately realized, though the naming of former minister of health Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov as acting president—a departure from the dictates of the country’s constitution—was greeted with some surprise. The country’s first (at least nominally) contested elections were held in February of the following year, and, amid widespread criticism that they were marred by fraud, Berdymukhammedov was declared the winner and was formally inaugurated as Turkmenistan’s president.

    Presidency of Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov[edit | edit source]

    Early in his presidency, Berdymukhammedov took steps toward dismantling the vestiges of Niyazov personality cult and reversing some of his controversial orders. Adjustments included ending bans such as those on ballet and opera, reversing Niyazov decree renaming the days of the week and months of the year after himself and members of his family, and ordering that the Neutrality Arch, with its large gold effigy, be moved from the capital’s centre to its southern reaches. But Berdymukhamedov soon replaced Niyazov personality cult with one of his own. Instead of renaming months after himself and his relatives, he renamed locations and institutions. Replacing Niyazov Ruhnama, students began reading Berdymukhammedov Turkmennama (“Story of the Turkmens”). In 2015 a golden statute of Berdymukhammedov was unveiled in central Ashgabat.

    Berdymukhammedov was elected to a second five-year term as president in February 2012, although the ballot was generally regarded as fraudulent. In December Turkmenistan held a parliamentary election that was billed as the first to feature multiple political parties. In reality, the political process remained under the government’s tight control. Only parties with official recognition participated in the election, and individual candidates were carefully screened to ensure their loyalty to Berdymukhammedov.

    In late 2015 work began on a pipeline that would allow Turkmenistan to export its extensive natural gas resources to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The so-called Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline was expected to stretch about 1,125 miles (1,800 km) and to be operational by the end of 2019, though financial troubles in Turkmenistan put the pipeline’s construction behind schedule.

    In February 2016 a commission headed by Berdymukhammedov drafted amendments to the constitution that would increase the length of a presidential term from five to seven years and remove the upper age limit on the president, which had been set at 70. Observers generally saw the amendments, which went into effect just months before the presidential election scheduled for February 2017, as further evidence that Berdymukhammedov intended to hold the presidency for life. As expected, Berdymukhammedov won a seven-year term in 2017 with 98 percent of the vote.

    Politics[edit | edit source]

    Government[edit | edit source]

    Turkmenistan has a presidential system of government where the president assumes the roles of the Head of State as well as the Head of Government. Turkmenistan was part of the Soviet Union for 69 years until the declaration of its independence occurred in 1991. The People’s Council approved the implementation of a new constitution in September 2008 which led to the creation of different political parties.

    President[edit | edit source]

    Executive power in the country is vested in the president who is Turkmenistan’s highest official. The president retains the right to grant amnesties and pardons as well as confer honors. He or she determines the issues which qualify one to gain citizenship of Turkmenistan and also the factors for leaving it.

    Legislature[edit | edit source]

    The 2008 Constitution of Turkmenistan created a unicameral parliament known as the Mejlis. 125 members seat in the assembly for five-year terms representing constituencies. The assembly is the legal-making institution in Turkmenistan, and also enacts amendments and oversees implementation. It reviews the program activities presented by the Cabinet for approval and also considers questions arising in the adoption of the state budget. The Assembly considers whether or not to hold referendums.

    Judiciary[edit | edit source]

    The judicial system of Turkmenistan is made up of the Supreme Court and six provincial courts in addition to 61 district and city courts. Disputes between ministries and businesses are heard in the supreme economic court. Military courts in Turkmenistan were abolished in 1997, and civilian courts now give audience to disputes in the armed forces. The President has the power to appoint judges, and it is only the chairman of the Supreme Court who is confirmed by the legislature.

    Administration[edit | edit source]

    The nation is made up of five regions (welayatlar) namely Mary, Balkan, Lebap, Ahal, and Dashoguz. Under the provinces are 50 districts which are then divided into towns, villages, rural councils, and rural settlements. Turkmenistan’s capital city is Ashgabat which serves as both a territorial and administrative unit. The city is home to 6 districts and has province-wide powers. The capital’s districts are Abadan, Bagtyyarlyk, Rukhabat, Archabil, Kopetdag, and Berkarar Lyk. Regional heads are appointed by the president.

    Diplomacy[edit | edit source]

    Organizations and Affiliations[edit | edit source]

    • Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    • European Bank For Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
    • International Organization for Migration (IOM)
    • Delegation of the European Union
    • Office of the UN Resident Coordinator
    • Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
    • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    • United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR)
    • United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
    • United Nations Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia (UNRCCA)
    • World Bank World Health Organization (WHO)
    • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
    • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

    Geography[edit | edit source]

    Turkmenistan is located in the southwest of the Central Asia region. It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Though Turkmenistan is the second largest country in Central Asia in terms of land area, most of the land consists of oases scattered amid otherwise uninhabitable desert. Topographically, four-fifths of Turkmenistan consists of the southern part of the Turan Plain. Mountains and foothills rise mainly in the southern part of the republic, including the Kugitang Tau and Kopet-Dag ranges. The Kopet-Dag is geologically young, its instability indicated by intermittent earthquakes of great destructive force.

    Two broad divisions may be seen throughout Turkmenistan: an oasis region—characterized by adequate water supply, cultivated lands, and developed industry—composed of the Kopet-Dag and other oases; and

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Family[edit | edit source]

    Optional[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    Neutral[edit | edit source]

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Former Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Past Versions[edit | edit source]

    • Turkmen SSR

    Opinions[edit | edit source]

    ❝ ❞

    Turkmenistan's thoughts about File:-Pictogram.png [[]]

    Gallery[edit | edit source]

    Fan-Art[edit | edit source]

    Flags/Symbols[edit | edit source]

    Trivia[edit | edit source]

    • Turkmenistan declared independence from the Soviet Union on 27th of October, 1991
    • Turkmenistan was ruled by dictator and President for Life, Saparmurat Niyazov between 1991 and 2006.
    • This unique country holds the Guinness World Record for the largest indoor Ferris wheel in an architectural structure. The Ferris wheel is 156 feet (47.60 m) tall, while it’s surrounding structure is 187 feet (57 m).
    • The Darvaza Gas Craters, or Gates to Hell as the locals know it, is a 226 feet (60 m) wide and 98 feet (30 m) deep crater that has huge deposits of oil and natural gas. In an attempt to burn off the excess gas, Soviet engineers set it alight in 1971, estimating that it would take a few weeks to burn off. It still burns to this day!
    • The Ancient City of Merv in southeastern Turkmenistan is a city that was completely destroyed several times. It was captured by the Mongols who executed the entire population, apart from 400 artisans. Some historians believe that over one million people were killed.
    • The Karakum Desert, or Black Sand in the Turkic languages, occupies 70% of Turkmenistan, or 135,135 square miles (350,000 km²). It’s also one of the driest deserts in the world, with some areas recording only 0.005 inches (0.12mm) of precipitation annually.
    • July 1983 officially saw the hottest day in Turkmenistan and the Soviet Union – it was recorded at the Repetek Reserve at 122 F. (50°C)
    • Turkmenistan has the 6th largest oil and natural gas reserves in the world.
    • In March 2014, 15,000 public health workers were dismissed from their roles. A year later, all hospitals outside of the capital were closed. This was because it was decided that everyone should come to the capital for treatment.
    • President for Life, Saparmurat Niyazov implemented many laws throughout his reign, here are just a few: On February 2004 men were banned from having long hair or beards.
    • In 2005 lip-syncing was banned at concerts. Dogs were banned from the capital due to their “unappealing odor.” Smoking was banned in all public places and for all government employees.
    • Dubbed as the North Korea of Central Asia, Turkmenistan is ranked as one of the hardest countries to enter, with strict visa applications requiring assistance from tour agencies and a guide.
    • Ashgabat holds the Guinness World Record for the most public pools in a single place. At 27, the most buildings clad in marble and the largest architectural star with a mind-blowing area of 34,875 square feet (3,240 sq. m).
    • Between 2002 and 2008, the days of the week and months of the year were renamed to Turkmen National Symbols.
    • 2015 saw Turkmenistan’s first satellite launched, in the same month all satellite dishes were banned across the country in an attempt to stop Turkmen’s gaining access to international media.
    • The Ruhnama – a book written by Saparmurat Niyazov had to be displayed in a locations of prominence, all government buildings, and shops. Within mosques, it was to be treated the same as the Qur’an. Failure to do this would lead to destruction of the mosque.
    • Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow took power of Turkmenistan in February 2007, succeeding Saparmurat Niyazov.
    • A main part of the original constitution was “permanent neutrality” which was officially recognized by the UN in 1995. Turkmenistan has no ties with NATO or Collective Security Treaty Organization (Draft:CSTO).
    • Under the Decree of the People’s council, on the 17th of August 2003, the population of Turkmenistan is entitled to subsided electricity, natural gas, water, and salt until 2030. Up to 2014, this also included the vehicles.
    • Saparmurat Niyazov’s cult of personality and leadership was used as base for the film, “The Dictator.”
    • According to the 2017 World Press Freedom Index, Turkmenistan ranked is 178th out of 180 with only North Korea and Eritrea below it. This puts it in the top 10 of most censored countries.

    Extra(s)[edit | edit source]

    • Religion: Muslim (89%), Eastern Orthodox (9%)
    • Urbanization: 53%
    • Social Progress Index: 118th in the World
    • Basic Human needs: 74th in the World
    • Social Opportunities: 162nd in the World
    • Health & Wellness: 111th in the World
    • Basic Medical Care: 69th in the World
    • Personal Safety: 59th in the World
    • Access to Education: 60th in the World
    • Access to Information: 147th in the World
    • Advanced Education: 167th in the World
    • Personal Freedom: 106th in the World
    • Personal Rights: 168th in the World
    • Freedom of Speech: in the World
    • Tolerance & Inclusion: 149th in the World
    • Women Equality:
    • Tolerance for Minorities: 77th in the World
    • Tolerance for Homosexual: N/A
    • GDP: $15,538
    • Unemployment: 5.02%
    • Currency: Turkmenistani Manat
    • Telephones:
    • Mobile Phones:
    • Internet Users:

    Links[edit | edit source]


    References[edit | edit source]

    Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.
    Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.